Ovine Breeding and Breeding | Earnings and Costs
Ovine breeding is the general name of livestock activities carried out within the scope of sheep, goat or fur livestock. This livestock sector is known for being less troublesome and generating high income. In addition, sheep and goat breeding is an area that dates back to ancient times in our country. Turkey almost every corner in the country’s economy through small ruminants obtain a permanent gains but provided a great contribution. The main reason why sheep farming, which is generally known as sheep breeding and goat breeding, is the center attention entrepreneurs, is that our country has suitable conditions for this sector. Ovine brfeeding is a sector that does not demand much capital. In addition, the state provides support for this livestock activity. In this way, a successful ovine breeding project can be realized if the necessary conditions are applied correctly.
It covers processes such as ovine breeding, establishing an animal farm, feeding and caring for animals and protection against diseases. At the same time, in order to earn high income in this field, it is necessary to provide a healthy and efficient sheep breed at first. Completing all these correctly and completely are the main factors that lead entrepreneurs to success. For this reason, it is necessary to learn all the tricks about sheep farming from A to Z in detail.
Small cattle breeding, which is a livestock activity dating back to ancient times, is one the low cost and high income business lines. This industry, which has helped people to make a living for thousands years, is not as common today as it used to be. However, the decline in the field sheep and goat breeding in recent years has led to an increase in demand in this field and the large deficit in the market has created an easier competition environment for entrepreneurs.
In this context, a flat or sloping area with few rocks should be preferred in order for the pastures to have a rich plant diversity and for the animals to roam easily. Another stage of ovine breeding is the establishment of a shelter for sheep and goats. During the establishment of shelters, attention should be paid to ventilation and area per animal, and shelter should not be built in damp areas.
After the establishment of the sheep farm within the scope of the required rules, it is time to choose the productive breed. Each race differs from each other with its various characteristics. Some breeds are selected according to their meat, some according to milk and some according to their offspring or fleece yield. However, meat and milk yield is generally taken into consideration in sheep and goats. During the selection of the sheep breed, issues such as environmental conditions, expenditure and demand, the cost of the animal to be raised during this process, the condition of meeting the expectations of the breed should be taken into account.
In addition to all these, one of the details to be considered within the scope of sheep and goat breeding is the way of breeding and feeding. Pure breeding and crossbreeding are known as the two main breeding methods. Nutrition varies according to farm breeding and pasture cultivation. Roughage and feedstuffs form the basis of nutrition in farm breeding. Animals are grazed in fallow lands. In pasture cultivation, the basis of nutrition is based on pasture. This method is known as the healthiest and most efficient method.
Ovine Animal Farm Establishment
As mentioned above, sheep and goat breeding is based on pasture. However, depending on the breeding style, sometimes pasture is not required in sheep and goat breeding. For example, in farm sheep, animals are fed on stubble and fallow land. In sheep farming, breeders generally provide animal feed with their own means. However, shelter setup is almost the same in growing systems.
First of all, if we start with sheep, sheep should be planned for sheep breeding. Animal biology should be taken into consideration in planning the pen. Since sheep have a thick wool layer, they are resistant to cold. This provides a great advantage.
The only important requirement in building shelters is to stay away from damp areas. For the establishment of sheep farms, an area with good water and electricity supply, close to the pasture, rich vegetation, suitable road and topographic location should be selected.
In goat breeding, shelter areas should not be established in damp places as in sheep. Goats generally feed in forest vines. Therefore, it is not a problem if the pasture area is rocky. The size of goat shelters is almost the same as sheep shelters. However, some small details should not go unnoticed. For example, in the sections where goats give birth, the ceiling height of the shelter should not be more than 3 meters. The floor area chosen for tekkes should be an average of 4 m2.
In general, during the establishment of sheep and goats farm, animal litter should be suitable for parasites such as fleas and ticks and should be easily cleaned. At the same time, the corral walls must be regularly whitewashed every year. Sheep doors should have an average height of 3 meters and a width of 3 meters according to the size of the animals. Bad weather in the corral leads to the spread of diseases. For this reason, a window system of sufficient size should be installed and ventilation shafts should be built.
Ovine Breeding Cost
The budget spent on this animal husbandry is one of the first things that those who want to do ovine breeding should know before starting. First of all, it should not be forgotten that time, patience and a correct breeding process are required in order to earn a certain income by breeding sheep and goats. Otherwise, the desired profit cannot be obtained from the invested capital. Although sheep and goat farming is seen as an easy business branch, the right methods should be applied for a professional business.The main thing that those who want to make small ruminants should know is the cost of raising sheep and goats. Although it is not possible to make a precise budget calculation, it is possible to make an average estimate.
Considering the factors such as the establishment the pen, the purchase necessary equipment, and additionally, the feed purchase, the cost is estimated to be around 500 thousand TL per 100 sheep. However, entrepreneurs should take into account that the costs may exceed the initially determined budget during the establishment the environment required for aquaculture and should make budget planning accordingly.
Ovine Animal Diseases
As in other animal husbandry activities, it is possible for animals to get diseases from time to time due to certain factors during ovine breeding. Diseases seen in sheep and goats reduce the productivity of animals and even infect humans. The rate of transmission of the disease to other animals is also high, especially as small ruminants share the same habitat. For this reason, sheep and goat diseases should never be underestimated and the necessary methods should be applied in a short time.
Among the diseases seen in ovine animals, the most common is known as smallpox and anthrax plague. Smallpox manifests itself with high fever and blisters in the hairless parts of the animal. Germs spread by falling parts or coughing from injured parts of the animal cause the disease to spread. Other intact animals will soon catch smallpox if they come into close contact with the sick animal. There is no cure for smallpox. Therefore, the sick animal must be isolated.
Another high mortality disease is sheep and goat plague. Plague is known as the most virulent and common disease among sheep and goat diseases. The disease is transmitted by tears, cough, runny nose and or feces. It is usually seen with the addition of a new sick animal to the herd. In addition, sheep and goats infected with plague have a lack of appetite, frequent drooling from their mouths and high fever. Like smallpox, there is no cure for this disease. The only method is to separate intact and sick animals.
The Most Profitable Ovine Breeds
The main thing that those who want to do ovine breeding should know is the productive ovine breeds. The most profitable ovine breeds differ according to their meat and milk yield. For a successful ovine breeding activity, the breeds must be well known.
Animal breed selection often depends on the entrepreneur’s goal. Accordingly, animal selection and cost calculations should be made.
Breeds such as Chios, Sardinia and Ivesi are known for their milk yield in sheep breeding. However, in contrast, Hampshire, Kivircik, and Karakaya are sheep raised for meat.
The purpose of sheep farming should be determined before selecting the most profitable ovine breeds. Then, appropriate land selection should be made and suitable pastures and pastures should be preferred. In addition, the climatic conditions of the region where the farm will be established should also be taken into consideration.
If we talk about goat breeds, first of all, it is necessary to mention the Hair goat. Hair goats can be fed in every region of Turkey. It is also very resistant to cold and heat. It is a profitable breed in terms of both meat and milk. Another productive race is known as Angora goat. This breed, which has adapted to Anatolian lands for many years, is known as the Ankara goat among the people. It is generally used in the textile field.
Ovine Breeding Earnings and Income
Foods such as milk, meat, leather and cheese obtained from ovine animals are always in high demand and are included in the food group. Considering that the annual meat consumption in our country is only 1 million tons, 200,000 tons of this falls into the share of red meat. This indicates the deficit seen in sheep and goat meat. Therefore, especially in recent years, sheep and goat breeding has become a profitable sector.
Ovine breeding earnings and returns vary according to some factors. The most important of these is the purpose of carrying out livestock activities. Sheep and goat milk are fed under different categories according to their meat and skin. For this reason, it is necessary to determine the purpose breeding and calculate the possible profit ratio in this area. However, if we look in general terms, especially in recent years, thanks to the development technology, sheep breeding has turned into a more practical and profitable field.